Punjab (means-The land of Five Waters) is most inhabited province of Pakistan, having an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017. It’s bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir. It additionally shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. The capital is Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan wherever the country’s cinema business, and more of its fashion business, are based.
It has been settled since ancient times. The Indus valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was initailly discovered at Harappa. It features heavily in the Hindu epic poem, that is Mahabharata. It is home to Taxila, site of what’s considered by several to be the oldest university within the world. In 326 BCE, Alexander the great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes close to Mong, Punjab. The Omayyad empire conquered this region within the 8th century Ce. in the later centuries, It was also invaded and conquered by the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Delhi sultanate, Mughals, Durranis and the Sikhs. Punjab reached the peak of its splendour during the reign of the Mughal Empire, that for a time dominated from Lahore. during the eighteenth century, Nader Shah’s invasion of the Mughal Empire caused Mughal authority within the Punjab to fall apart and it so fell into chaos. The Durranis under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani took control of Punjab only to lose it to the Sikhs after a successful rebellion that allowed Sikh armies to claim Lahore in 1759. The Sikh Empire was ruled by Ranjit Singh together with his capital based in Lahore, until its defeat by British. Itwas centre of independence movements for both Pakistan and India, with Lahore being site of both the Declaration of Indian Independence, and therefore the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. This province was formed when the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious basis in 1947 by the Radcliffe Line after Partition.
Punjab is most industrial province with the economic sector within Pakistan. It is known in Pakistan for its relative prosperity and has the lowest rate of poorness amongst all Pakistani provinces. A transparent dividing line is present between the northern and southern regions of the province. Along with that the poverty rates in prosperous northern Punjab are the lowest in Pakistan. However some areas in south Punjab are amongst the foremost impoverished. The human development index rankings of this province are high relative to the rest of Pakistan.
Punjab is popular in Pakistan for its relatively liberal social attitudes. The province has been powerfully influenced by Sufism with numerous Sufi shrines unfold across geographical area that magnetize uncountable devotees annually.
The founding father of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, was born within the geographical area town of Nankana sahib close to Lahore. Punjab is additionally the province where the Katasraj Temple is located that options conspicuously in Hindu mythology. Several United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, as well as the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the archeological excavations at Taxila, and also the Rohtas Fort.
Its Landscape consists of fertile deposit plains of the Indus River and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, that are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej rivers that traverse Punjab north to south – the fifth of the “five waters” of Punjab, the Beas river, lies only inside the Indian state of Punjab. The landscape is amongst the foremost heavily irrigated on earth and canals is found throughout the province. Punjab collectively includes several mountainous regions, also the Sulaiman Mountains in the southwest a part of the province, the Margalla Hills in the north close to national capital, and also the Salt range that divides the foremost northerly portion of Punjab, the Pothohar plateau, from the rest of the province. Distributed deserts is found in southern Punjab close to the border with Rajasthan and close to the Sulaiman vary. Punjab jointly contains a part of the Thal and Cholistan deserts.
Most areas in Punjab experience extreme weather with foggy winters, generally within the course of rain. By period the temperature begins to rise; spring weather continues till mid-april, once the summer heat sets in. Temperature here ranges from -2° to 45 °C, but will reach fifty °C (122 °F) in summer and might set down to -10 °C in winter.
Languages spoken in there are principally Punjabi followed by Saraiki, Urdu and others.